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uheng 发表于 2010-7-12 07:59:22

Mark Allen论心率训练

本帖最后由 uheng 于 2010-7-12 08:01 编辑

Mark Allen on Heart Rate Training
Mark Allen论心率训练

Working Your Heart
The secret of training smart
Updated Summer 2009

锻炼您的心脏                                                                  
聪明训练的秘密
2009夏日更新

During my 15 years of racing in the sport of triathlons I searched for those few golden tools that would allow me to maximize my training time and come up with the race results I envisioned. At the top of that list was heart rate training. It was and still is the single most potent tool an endurance athlete can use to set the intensity levels of workouts in a way that will allow for long-term athletic performance. Yes, there are other options like lactate testing, power output and pace, but all of these have certain shortcomings that make them less universally applicable than heart rate.

在15年铁人三项的比赛生涯中,我一直在寻找各种可以帮助我提高训练成绩和取得预期比赛结果的神秘武器。最有效的是心率训练。它曾是,现在仍然是耐力运动员设定训练强度,提高运动成绩,唯一最重要的有力武器。Yes,还有其它武器,比如乳酸根测试,功率输出和配速,但是,所有这些存在某些缺点,应用也不如心率那样广泛。
In our sport there are three key areas of fitness that you will be developing. These are speed, strength and endurance. Strength is fairly straightforward to do. Two days per week in the gym focusing on an overall body- strengthening program is what will do the trick. More time for a triathlete usually ends up giving diminished returns on any additional strength workout. These two key days are the ones that will give you the strength in your races to push a high power output on the bike, to accelerate when needed on the run and to sustain a high speed in the water.

我们这项运动有三个体能区域您需要开发,它们是速度,力量和耐力。力量训练比较直接,在健身房中,每周二次的整体力量训练即可。通常,铁人三项花更多时间做其它力量训练,效果反而不好。这关键的二天将在赛程中给予您力量,在单车上,提高输出功率;在跑步时,如有必要,提供加速度;在水中,可以保持高速。
Next are the focused workouts that will give you raw speed. This is perhaps the most well known part to anyone’s training. These are your interval or speed sessions where you focus on a approaching a maximal output or your top speed at some point in each of these key sessions. But again, developing speed in and of itself is a fairly simple process. It just requires putting the pain sensors in neutral and going for it for short periods of time. A total of 15-20 minutes each week in each sport of high intensity work is all it takes.

下一步是重点训练,它可以给您原始速度。在任何人的训练中,这一部分也许是最著名的,即间歇训练或速度训练,在每一次训练的某一时刻,您致力于接近最大输出或您的最高速度。同样,开发速度本身是一个非常简单的过程,仅仅要求痛苦指数为中等,训练时间短暂。对于任何运动,每周仅需高强度训练15-20分钟。
Now for the tougher part of the endurance. This is where heart rate training becomes king. Endurance is THE most important piece of a triathlete’s fitness. Why is it tough to develop? Simply put, it is challenging because it usually means an athlete will have to slow things down from their normal group training pace to effectively develop their aerobic engine and being guided by what is going on with your heart rate rather than your will to the champion of the daily training sessions with your training partners! It means swimming, cycling and running with the ego checked at the door. But for those patient enough to do just that, once the aerobic engine is built the speedwork will have a profound positive effect their fitness and allow for a longer-lasting improvement in performance than for those who blast away from the first day of training each year.

    现在,谈谈最艰难的耐力部分,这是心率训练的主战场。耐力是三项体能最重要的指标。为什么开发艰难?简而言之,具有挑战性是因为它通常意味着运动员不得不从正常的小组训练配速降低至可以有效开发有氧引擎,受您心率主导的配速,而不是您想当当日小组训练冠军意愿主导的配速!它意味着游泳,骑单车和跑步都需在入口处经过自我检查。但是,对于那些对此有足够耐心的人,一旦有氧引擎建立,从每年的第一天训练起,速度训练将对他们的体能施加极大的正面影响,使他们能够比那些无法坚持的人更长期地提高成绩。
What is the solution to maximizing your endurance engine? It’s called a heart rate monitor.

优化您的耐力引擎,解决方案是什么?它叫心率表。
Whether your goal is to win a race or just live a long healthy life, using a heart rate monitor is the single most valuable tool you can have in your training equipment arsenal. And using one in the way I am going to describe will not only help you shed those last few pounds, but will enable you to do it without either killing yourself in training or starving yourself at the dinner table.

无论您的目的是赢得比赛或过健康的生活,心率表是您所有训练装备中最有价值的工具。按我即将介绍的方法使用心率表,不仅可以帮助您甩掉那最后的几磅,还可以使您不至于在训练中杀了您或者在餐桌上饿着您。
I came from a swimming background, which in the 70’s and 80’s when I competed was a sport that lived by the No Pain, No Gain?motto. My coach would give us workouts that were designed to push us to our limit every single day. I would go home dead, sleep as much as I could, then come back the next day for another round of punishing interval sets.

我具有游泳背景,在70’s和80’s年代当我参加比赛时,游泳是一种以NO Pain, NO Gain(不吃苦中苦哪有甜中甜)为座右铭的运动。教练安排的训练是我们天天必须训练至极限。我回家后动都不能动,尽可能多地睡,然后,第二天回去接受另一轮惩罚式间歇训练。
It was all I knew. So, when I entered the sport of triathlon in the early 1980’s, my mentality was to go as hard as I could at some point in every single workout I did. And to gauge how fast that might have to be, I looked at how fast the best triathletes were running at the end of the short distance races. Guys like Dave Scott, Scott Tinley and Scott Molina were able to hold close to 5 minute miles for their 10ks after swimming and biking! 这就是我知道的一切。因此,当我于1980’s年代介入铁人三项,在我心目中就是在所做每个训练的某一时刻,用尽全力。为了确定必须多快,我总是观察最佳三项选手在短距离比赛最后阶段跑得有多快。那些家伙,比如Dave Scott, Scott Tinley和Scott Molina,在游泳和骑行之后的10k中,可以保持约5分钟每英里。(译者--1英里=1.6公里)


(待续)

不叫不叫 发表于 2016-1-11 23:09:34

歪果仁研究问题的思路和中国人不同,注重实践和数理分析,所以总感觉读起来不是很顺畅,但提出的观点却往往非常新颖和实用。

yongshidao 发表于 2016-1-18 15:56:02

我最大心率179的样子,按这个办法,还不要开始跑,准备过程开始兴奋心率就到了136.。。:L基本不能动了。。。

乌伦台 发表于 2014-9-23 23:26:04

uheng 发表于 2011-1-13 12:29
回复 40# mars




学习了!楼主推荐个好用又便宜的心率监测工具啊。

uheng 发表于 2010-7-12 09:09:15

本帖最后由 uheng 于 2010-7-12 09:12 编辑

So that’s what I did. Every run, even the slow ones, for at least one mile, I would try to get close to 5 minute pace. And it worked卻ort of. I had some good races the first year or two, but I also suffered from minor injuries and was always feeling one run away from being too burned out to want to continue with my training.

为此,我所做的是,每一次跑步,甚至是那些慢跑,至少有1英里,我会尽力接近5分钟配速。And it worked卻ort of. 在第一或第二年,取得过一些好成绩,但是,我也受了些轻伤,总是感到累过头了不想继续训练。

Then came the heart rate monitor. A man named Phil Maffetone, who had done a lot of research with the monitors, contacted me. He had me try one out according to a very specific protocol. Phil said that I was doing too much anaerobic training, too much speed work, too many high end/high heart rate sessions. I was forcing my body into a chemistry that only burns carbohydrates for fuel by elevating my heart rate so high each time I went out and ran.

现在,谈谈心率表。一个叫Phil Maffetone的人已经做过许多有关心率表的研究,他联络我了。他让我根据他的特殊方法试用一下心率表。Phil说我无氧训练做得太多,速度训练太多,高端/高心率训练太多。每次出去跑步,通过极大地提高心率,我正在迫使血液进入一种仅燃烧碳水化合物燃料的化学反应。

So he told me to go to the track, strap on the heart rate monitor, and keep my heart rate below 155 beats per minute. Maffetone told me that below this number that my body would be able to take in enough oxygen to burn fat as the main source of fuel for my muscle to move. I was going to develop my aerobic/fat burning system. What I discovered was a shock.

因此他让我回到跑道,戴上心率表,保持心率低于155次/分钟。Maffetone告诉我低于此心率,血液能够获得足够的氧气,燃烧作为主要燃料的脂肪,使肌肉动作。我正在开发我的有氧/脂肪燃料系统。我所发现的只有震惊。

To keep my heart rate below 155 beats/minute, I had to slow my pace down to an 8:15 mile. That’s three minutes/mile SLOWER than I had been trying to hit in every single workout I did! My body just couldn’t utilize fat for fuel.

为了保持心率低于155次/分钟,我不得不放慢速度至8:15每英里。这是比曾经在每一次训练中我试图达到的配速慢3分钟/英里!我的身体几乎不能以脂肪为燃料。

So, for the next four months, I did exclusively aerobic training keeping my heart rate at or below my maximum aerobic heart rate, using the monitor every single workout. And at the end of that period, my pace at the same heart rate of 155 beats/minute had improved by over a minute. And after nearly a year of doing mostly aerobic training, which by the way was much more comfortable and less taxing than the anaerobic style that I was used to, my pace at 155 beats/minute had improved to a blistering 5:20 mile.

这样,在随后4个月中,我仅作有氧训练,每一次训练都使用心率表,保持心率等于或低于我的最大有氧心率。在这阶段结束时,在同样的155次/分钟心率下,我的速度提高了1分钟以上。在大多为有氧训练的几乎一年之后,顺便说一下,有氧训练比我以前的无氧训练舒服省力多了,在155次/分钟心率下,我的速度已经提高到惊人的每英里5:20。

That means that I was now able to burn fat for fuel efficiently enough to hold a pace that a year before was redlining my effort at a maximum heart rate of about 190. I had become an aerobic machine! On top of the speed benefit at lower heart rates, I was no longer feeling like I was ready for an injury the next run I went on, and I was feeling fresh after my workouts instead of being totally wasted from them.

这意味着我能够有效地燃烧脂肪燃料,并保持一年前在最高心率190次/分钟才能达到的速度。我已经变成了有氧机器!提高低心率速度之后,我再也不担心下一次跑步会受伤;每次训练之后,我感到精力充沛,而不是筋疲力尽。

So let’s figure out what heart rate will give you this kind of benefit and improvement. There is a formula that will determine your Maximum Aerobic Heart Rate, which is the maximum heart rate you can go and still burn fat as the main source of energy in your muscles. It is the heart rate that will enable you to recover day to day from your training. It’s the maximum heart rate that will help you burn those last few pounds of fat. It is the heart that will build the size of your internal engine so that you have more power to give when you do want to maximize your heart rate in a race situation.

现在,让我们了解一下什么心率会带来这种好处和提高。有一个公式可以确定您的最高有氧心率,它是跑步时,您能够燃烧脂肪为肌肉提供主要能量的最高心率;它是每日您都能从训练中恢复的心率;它是帮助您甩掉最后几磅脂肪的最高心率;它是扩建您内部引擎,使您在赛事中确实想提高心率之时能够输出更大功率的心率。

Here is the formula: 公式如下:

1. Take 180 取180

2. Subtract your age 减去您的年龄

3. Take this number and correct it by the following: 校正该差值,方法如下:

-If you do not workout, subtract another 5 beats.
如果您从不运动,另减5次/分钟。

-If you workout only 1-2 days a week, only subtract 2 or 3 beats.
如果您每周运动1-2次,另减2 或 3次/分钟。

-If you workout 3-4 times a week keep the number where it is.
如果您每周运动3-4次,数值保持不变。

-If you workout 5-6 times a week keep the number where it is.
如果您每周运动5-6次,数值保持不变。

-If you workout 7 or more times a week and have done so for over a year, add       5 beats to the number.
如果您每周运动7次以上,已经有一年以上,另加5次/分钟。

-If you are over about 55 years old or younger than about 25 years old, add another 5 beats to whatever number you now have.
如果您55岁左右或更年轻,无论现在是多少,另加5次/分钟。

-If you are about 60 years old or older OR if you are about 20 years old or younger, add an additional 5 beats to the corrected number you now have.
如果您60岁左右或更年长,或者您20岁左右或更年轻,在目前的校正数值上,另加5次/分钟。

You now have your maximum aerobic heart rate, which again is the maximum heart rate that you can workout at and still burn mostly fat for fuel. Now go out and do ALL of your cardiovascular training at or below this heart rate and see how your pace improves. After just a few weeks you should start to see a dramatic improvement in the speed you can go at these lower heart rates.

现在,已得出您的最大有氧心率,它同时也是您可以使用的,主要是以燃烧脂肪为燃料的最大心率。现在,出去吧,在此心率或以下,做所有的心血管训练,看看如何提高您的速度。只要几周以后,您应该开始看到在此低心率下的速度已有大幅度提高。

(待续)

jiujielisai 发表于 2010-7-12 09:27:52

好文章,看来大部分时间慢跑还是有好处,收藏了,

uheng 发表于 2010-7-12 10:07:06

Over time, however, you will get the maximum benefit possible from doing just aerobic training. At that point, after several months of seeing your pace get faster at your maximum aerobic heart rate, you will begin to slow down. This is the sign that if you want to continue to improve on your speed, it is time to go back to the high end interval anaerobic training one or two days/week. So, you will have to go back to the NO Pain, NO Gain?credo once again. But this time your body will be able to handle it. Keep at the intervals and you will see your pace improve once again for a period. But just like the aerobic training, there is a limit to the benefit you will receive from anaerobic/carbohydrate training. At that point, you will see your speed start to slow down again. And that is the signal that it is time to switch back to a strict diet of aerobic/fat burning training.

经过一段时间之后,您将从仅做有氧训练中得到尽可能大的好处。从那时起,数个月眼看着在最大有氧心率下的速度越来越快,此后,您将开始慢下来。这是一个信号,如果您想继续提高速度,这是返回每周1或2次高端间歇无氧训练的时候了。所以,您不得不再一次返回NO Pain, NO Gain(不吃苦中苦哪有甜中甜)式训练。这一次,您的身体能够承受。坚持间歇训练,您将看到您的速度再一次阶段性提高。但是,和有氧训练一样,您在无氧/碳水化合物训练中的获益也有个限度。此后,您将开始慢下来。这是一个信号,这是重返严格的有氧/脂肪燃烧训练的时候了。

At the point of the year you are in right now, probably most of you are ready for this phase of speed work. Keep your interval sessions to around 15-30 minutes of hard high heart rate effort total. This means that if you are going to the track to do intervals do about 5k worth of speed during the entire workout. Less than that and the physiological effect is not as great. More than that and you just can maintain a high enough effort during the workout to maximize our benefit. You want to push your intervals, making each one a higher level of intensity and effort than the previous one. If you reach a point where you cannot maintain your form any longer, back off the effort or even call it a day. That is all your body has to give.

此时此刻,也许大多数人已经准备进行速度训练。在您的间歇训练中,保持高心率训练总时间在15-30分钟。意思是如果上跑道做间歇训练,在整个训练中,使用5K左右的速度。低于这个速度,体力付出不够大。高于这个速度,您仅能在训练中维持,以便获得最佳效果。在间歇训练中,您应该逐个推进强度,使后者强于前者。如果在某一时刻,这一模式再也无法维持,则需降低强度或甚至结束当天的训练。您身体不得不付出的就是这些。

This is what I did to keep improving for nearly 15 years as a triathlete and it is the basis for the coaching methodology at my coaching web site markallenonline.com where since 2001 Luis Vargas and I have coached hundred of triathletes to great results. It is certainly a challenging methodology for many but the rewards are huge. I invite you to become one of our athletes. Luis and I will personally answer any questions you may have about this methodology and how to overcome many of its challenges. See you at the races.

在接近15年铁人三项生涯中,这就是我为了不断提高成绩而所做的一切,这也是我教练方法的基础,我的教练网站为markallenonline.com,自从2001年,Luis Vargas和我帮助百余名铁人三项选手取得了优异成绩。对许多人来说,这肯定是一种具有挑战性的方法,但是回报是巨大的。我诚邀您成为我们的运动员之一。Luis和我将亲自回答您有关该方法的问题和如何克服遇到的困难。赛场上见。

Mark Allen
6 Time Ironman World Champion

作者Mark Allen
6次铁人三项世界冠军
(译者--摘自duathlon.com)

跑步121 发表于 2010-7-12 10:17:46

收藏!学习!谢谢!

骑跑 发表于 2010-7-12 11:09:37

喜欢看这类文章,看后总有收获。

谢谢了。

胡一刀 发表于 2010-7-16 16:16:54

收藏了,慢慢研究.

rc5 发表于 2010-7-18 20:35:13

为什么俺看到的版本和lz有出入?

1. Take 180 and subtract your age.

2. Take that number and correct it by the amount next to the statement that best describes your level of fitness:

a. Subtract five beats if you are recovering from a major illness or injury that has kept you from training for six months or more.

b. Leave the number where it is if you have been working out about two to three days per week for at least a year.

c. Add five beats if you have been working out more than three days per week for at least a year.

d. Add 10 beats if you have been working out more than five days per week for at least five years without recurring colds, illnesses, injuries or long periods of burnout.

e. If you are older than 55 years old or younger than 25 years old, add an additional five beats to whatever number you have right now.

(Note: if you are trying to decide between two of the above statements, it is much better to pick the one that gives you a lower training heart rate than the one that will give you the higher training heart rate.)

uheng 发表于 2010-7-19 08:50:58

hi, rc5,

估计您知道该方法叫低心率训练法,或MAF(最大有氧功能)训练法,鼻祖是Pill Maffeton,而本文作者最多只能称作Pill Maffeton的学生。如果想找出正宗版本,只有Google“Pill Maffeton”了。

实际上,两者相差不大耶。如果将您引用的注更改一下,也不错,即"Note: if you are trying to decide between two of the above VERSIONS, it is much better to pick the one that gives you a lower training heart rate than the one that will give you the higher training heart rate."

虽说使用的心率低些好,实际上,很累人,一不留神,心率就上去了。不知您试过否?

海边老狼 发表于 2011-1-11 14:42:55

国内也已经有人尝到这种训练方法的甜头了。。。俺也想试试!:lol
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