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热度 2已有 636 次阅读2011-8-26 14:00

The Benefits of Running
Running makes us well-oiled machines--ankles, knees, and hips included.
- By Judi Ketteler


作者:Judi Ketteler


"What about your knees? how are your knees?" chances are, you've fielded those questions more than once. Not from physicians, exercise physiologists, or physical therapists but from nonrunning friends and family members who assume that pavement pounding wreaks havoc on our bodies and that we'll all eventually need knee replacements and motorized scooters because of our arthritic joints.


Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, occurs when cartilage, the spongy tissue that cushions our joints, breaks down and deteriorates, making weight-bearing activities painful. From there, many people believe that running accelerates this process. And while most of us credit our running for keeping our heart, lungs, and soul healthy and happy, a twinge in an ankle or stiffness in a knee makes us wonder if our nonrunning buddies are right and our joints are bearing an unreasonable burden.


The fact is if we run responsibly--wear supportive shoes and replace them when worn out, rehab injuries properly, incorporate cross-training and rest days into our schedules as needed--we're no more susceptible to OA than the general population, say medical experts. Actually, it's the doubters on the sidelines who could have a better chance of developing it.


Weighing In on Knee Pain

The number one risk factor for OA is excess body fat--a problem most runners don't have. Sedentary, overweight people are 45 percent more likely to develop OA than those who are active. "The more you weigh, the more pressure is placed on the joints, which seems to accelerate the breakdown of cartilage," says Patience White, M.D., chief public health officer for the Arthritis Foundation. Since losing weight is one of the best ways to prevent OA (losing 10 pounds can take about 45 pounds of pressure off the knee), and running is one of the most effective calorie burners, hopping on the treadmill for a tempo session could help you sidestep joint issues.


But running does more than just lighten the body's load. "Aerobic exercise improves most body functions--including joint health," says James Fries, M.D., professor of medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. When you exercise, the cartilage in your hips, knees, and ankles compresses and expands. This draws in oxygen and flushes out waste products, nourishing and keeping the cartilage healthy. "Without exercise, cartilage cells get weak and sick," he says.

但是,跑步不仅仅是减轻您身体的负荷。“有氧训练可以提高大多数身体器官的功能——包括关节健康,”James Fries说,医学博士,Stanford 大学医学院医学教授。当您运动时,您髋关节,膝关节和踝关节的软骨不断地压缩和膨胀。这样可以摄入氧气,排出废物,滋养和保持软骨的健康。“不运动,软骨细胞将变弱和患病,”他说。

Furthermore, running strengthens the ligaments that help support joints, making them more stable and less susceptible to sprains and strains, which can damage cartilage and eventually lead to OA.


In 2006, Dr. Fries presented research that compared rates of OA-related disabilities between 539 runners and 423 nonrunners over a 21-year period. At the follow-up exam, researchers found that the nonrunners were worse for wear--their increase in disabilities was twice that of the runners.


根据2006Dr. Fries发表的研究报告,他们在21年间,以539名跑步者和423名非跑步者为研究对象,对与骨性关节炎相关的能力丧失发生率进行了比较。在这个跟踪研究中,研究人员发现非跑步者的软骨磨损更加严重——能力丧失发生率是跑步者的2倍。

The runners in Dr. Fries's study averaged about 60 minutes of running five days a week. But even higher-mileage runners don't seem to risk bad knees. A 2006 study conducted at Germany's University of Heidelberg looked at the incidence of OA among elite marathon runners. After comparing 20 former elite German marathoners with a control group of nonrunners of the same age, gender, and body mass index, the researchers found that the marathoners did not have a higher risk of OA of the knee.

Dr. Fries的研究中,跑步者跑步平均约每周5天,每天60分钟。然而,甚至是高里程跑步者似乎也没有膝关节损坏风险。根据2006年德国Heidelberg大学的研究报告,他们观察了精英马拉松运动员的骨性关节炎发病率。通过对20名前德国精英马拉松运动员和同年龄,同性别和同身高体重比的非跑步者之间的比较,研究人员发现马拉松运动员的骨性关节炎风险并不高。

When Injury Strikes

That said, while running itself doesn't increase the risk of developing OA, running injuries can--especially when you delay treatment or rush recovery. Ankle sprains, in particular, have been linked to the development of OA. Almost half of those who twist or turn an ankle experience additional sprains or ongoing weakness and pain. This is typically because the original injury wasn't well cared for and activity was resumed too quickly.


A 2005 study from the University of Basel in Switzerland found that 70 to 80 percent of patients with chronic ankle instability end up with arthritic ankles within 20 years. Doctors and physical therapists had always suspected this, but this was the first study to conclusively make the link between joint instability and arthritis, says Steven L. Haddad, M.D., associate professor of clinical orthopedic surgery at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine. "Arthritis can occur because of uneven mechanics of the joint," Dr. Haddad says. "If your joint is shifted and it's even one millimeter off, it increases the stresses placed on that joint by 42 percent. This incongruity of the surfaces leads to an erosion of cartilage."

根据2005年瑞士Basel大学的研究报告,研究人员发现70-80%慢性踝关节不稳患者,最终,将在20年之内患上踝关节炎。许多医生和理疗师一直怀疑这一点,但是,它是首个有关关节不稳和关节炎的研究,Steven L. Haddad说,医学博士,Northwestern大学Feinberg医学院足外科副教授。“关节炎可以因关节的力学不均匀而发生,”Dr. Haddad说。“如果您的关节出现位移,甚至,1mm偏离可以导致关节受力提高42%。这种表面不协调可以侵蚀软骨。”


This can also occur with patellofemoral pain syndrome, a.k.a. "runner's knee," says Dr. White. If you neglect strengthening the muscles and ligaments that support the patella (kneecap), it can become misaligned, causing pain and eventually OA (see "Preventive Steps," left, for strength-building exercises). "If the patella is tracking just a little bit off, it can rub the cartilage in an abnormal way and wear it down," Dr. White says.

髌骨疼痛综合症,即“跑步者膝盖”,也会产生这样的结果。如果您忽视增强支撑髌骨(膝盖)的肌肉和韧带,它就会错位,导致疼痛,最终,骨性关节炎(参见左边的“预防方法”,进行力量训练)。“如果轨迹有微小偏离,髌骨会非正常地摩擦和损伤软骨,”Dr. White说。

Luckily, all of this is avoidable. As Dr. White advises, "Don't run through joint pain, stick to soft surfaces when possible, wear supportive running shoes, and include strengthening exercises in your routine." Addressing joint issues sooner rather than later will not only help you avoid long-term damage, but it'll also help you run circles around your nonrunning friends for years to come.


幸运地是,所有这些都是可以避免的。正如Dr. White所说,“别带痛跑,跑尽可能软的路面,穿有支撑功能的跑鞋,常规训练结合力量训练。”尽早解决关节问题不仅有助您避免长期损伤,还有助您在您的不跑步朋友面前年复一年地跑下去。

(摘自runners world)





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回复 远源常盛 2011-8-26 14:41
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