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跑步如何影响您的身体(问题9-12)

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发表于 2010-10-20 13:51:07 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



20109月刊《Runner's World

08/24/2010

How Running Affects Your Body

Weird Science

By Dimity McDowell


跑步如何影响您的身体(问题9-12


怪怪的科学


作者Dimity McDowell

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-20 13:53:42 | 显示全部楼层
9 Why do I get headaches during or after a run?
It's not just because you know you're returning to the mess you ran away from. Headaches stem from a range of causes, from simple (a too-tight hat) to complex (a proclivity for migraines). Two of the most common reasons are tight muscles and poor hydration. "The trapezius attaches high on your scalp, so if you hold a lot of tension in your upper body as you run, your head could ache," says Dr. Bright. Headaches are also a symptom of both underdrinking and overdrinking.

为什么我在跑步途中或之后会头痛?
这不仅仅是因为您知道您正在返回您刚才脱离的困境。头痛的根源有许多,从简单(帽子太紧)到复杂(不同的偏头痛)。二个最普通的原因是肌肉紧张和饮水不足。“斜方肌连接高至您的头皮,如果跑步时您的上身过于紧张,您可能会头痛,”Bright博士说。另外,头痛也是饮水过度或不足的一种症状。

Running Rx Shake out your arms and hands and teeter-totter your neck as you run. At home, hold your left ear toward your left shoulder, right toward your right; repeat with the chin. Nail your beverage needs by weighing yourself before and after an hour run (without drinking). Each pound lost equals 16 ounces of fluid you should drink per hour.

跑步对策 在跑步时,甩一甩您的双臂和双手,动一动您的头颈。在家里,使您的左耳尽量靠近您的左肩,右耳尽量靠近您的右肩,重复数次。确定您的饮水量,跑前称一次体重,跑后再称一次(不喝水)。每减少1磅,您应该每小时饮用16盎司。(译注:1磅=16盎司)

10 Why do my bending knees sound like Rice Krispies when I walk down the stairs?
Snap, crackle, pop? Crepitus, the medical term, happens when cartilage, the connective tissue between bones, starts to age, says James Wyrick, M.D., orthopedic surgeon and associate professor at the University of Cincinnati in Ohio. We all start life with quiet, smooth cartilage between our kneecaps and thigh bones, but over time, it becomes gray and old and doesn't regenerate; most people older than age 30 have some mild crepitus. Weak quads or a tight IT band can pull the kneecaps out of alignment and exacerbate the wear and tear.

为什么我弯动膝关节下楼梯时有像松脆的锅巴发出的声音?
折断声,开裂声,爆破声?医学术语为碎裂音,它发生于骨头之间的连接组织,软骨开始老化之时,James Wyrick说,医学博士,骨外科医生,Cincinnati大学副教授。在生命的初期,我们的膝盖骨和大腿骨之间的软骨,光滑,无任何声响,但是,随着年龄的增长,它开始老化,最终失去再生能力;在30岁之后,大多数人会有一些微弱的碎裂音。股四头肌虚弱和髂胫束太紧可以导致膝盖骨位置不正,加剧磨损和拉伤。

Your knees pipe up when they bend past 30 degrees because the kneecap tracks into a groove in your femur—that is, cartilage-weak bone grinds into cartilage-weak bone. "The intensity of the pressure and the different contact points in the groove make the noise," says Dicharry.

当弯转超过30度时,您的膝盖上移,因为膝盖嵌入股骨的一个槽中---即,二个软骨较弱的骨头发生相互摩擦。“不同的压力大小和槽中接触点可以产生不同的噪音,”Dicharry说。

Running Rx "Cracking knees may lead to problems down the line, like arthritis," says Dicharry. Minimize that chance by strengthening the muscles that control the hips and knees, and keep your lower half in alignment, such as clamshells for the hip; squats for the knees (runnersworld.com/kneestrength).

跑步对策 “发声的膝关节可能引发其它问题,比如关节炎,”Dicharry说。降低致病风险,可以通过增强控制髋部和膝关节的肌肉,保持正常的下半身生理位置,蛤壳状肌控制髋部,股四头肌控制膝关节。

11 Why is it easier for me to run in the morning and so hard to rally at the end of the day—or vice versa?
Your natural bird persona—lark or owl—is partly determined by genetics. Housed in the hypothalamus, the portion of the brain that also controls sex drive and appetite, your biological clock is difficult to alter. If your forebears coherently discussed the Middle East situation at 7 a.m., you're likely to feel sharp before the sun comes up, too. If they thought 9 p.m. was the perfect time for dinner, you probably are happy staying up late. "Natural morning people seem to hit their lowest body temperature earlier in the night than evening people do," says Chris Kline, an exercise physiology researcher at the University of South Carolina who specializes in sleep research. "Their body temperature is warmer when they wake up, so they're much more ready to go."

为什么我感到早晨跑步很容易,晚上跑步很困难---或者相反?
您自然的鸟性人格—百灵鸟或猫头鹰---部分地取决于基因。位于脑下丘之中,作为脑子的一部分,您的生物钟还控制着性别,动力和胃口,难以改变。如果您的祖先一直是上午7点开始讨论中东问题的,那么,您可能也会在日出之前感到神清气爽。如果他们认为晚上9点是最佳用餐时间,那么,您可能喜欢熬夜。“与熬夜型相比,自然的早起型人群在晚上先达到他们的最低体温,”Chris Kline说,South Carolina大学的运动生理学研究员,专门从事睡觉研究。“当他们起床时,他们的体温较高,因此他们更喜欢早晨运动。”

But even early birds aren't primed to perform at sunrise. "Typically, aerobic capacity is slightly lower in the morning because of a lower core temperature and lower levels of hormones that affect performance," says Matt Fitzgerald, co-author of The Runner's Body: How the Latest Science Can Help You Run Stronger, Longer, and Faster. In the late afternoon, the body is naturally the strongest and most flexible it'll be all day, plus your aerobic capacity is at its highest. "Emotional moods and motivation have been shown to peak in the late afternoon," says Kline. "Nobody really knows why, but people are typically more willing to push themselves harder in the afternoon."

但是,即使是早起的鸟在日出时也不具备很好的运动表现。“通常,有氧能力在早晨稍微低一些,因为躯干温度不够,荷尔蒙浓度较低,影响运动表现,”Matt Fitzgerald说,《跑步者的身体:最新科学如何使您跑得更强,更久,更快》作者之一。在身体自然地达到一天中最强壮和最灵活的状态,另外,您的有氧能力也处于最高水平。“业已证明,在下午的晚些时候,精神状态和意志力也处于峰值,”Kline说。“无人真正地知道为什么,但是人类通常更喜欢在下午从事强度大的工作。”

Running Rx If you want to hit the track at 6 a.m.—and not hit anybody there over the head with a coffee cup—expose yourself to light, the easiest way to wake up your body, as soon as the alarm goes off. Also, realize that as you age, you naturally become more of a lark. Want to extend your staying power? Exercise either outside, if the sun is still out, or in a bright room two to four hours before bed. "It's tough to fight biological tendency," says Ronald Kramer, M.D., medical director of the Colorado Neurological Institute Sleep Disorders Center in Englewood, Colorado. "The important thing is to exercise, any time of day."

跑步对策 如果您想早晨6点开始跑,当闹钟响起时---不要一跃而起---先以舒缓,轻松的方式,唤醒您的身体。另外,随着年龄的增长,您自然而然地会更像百灵鸟。想延长您保持精力充沛的时间?如果太阳还没有下山,进行室外运动,或者,临睡2-4小时之前,在明亮的室内进行运动。“与自己的生物钟抗衡,非常困难,”Ronald Kramer说,医学博士,主任医生,工作单位Colorado精神病院睡眠障碍中心,Englewood, Colorado。“最重要的是在一天的任何时候,进行运动。”


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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-20 13:54:08 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 uheng 于 2010-10-20 14:30 编辑

12 Why am I so sore after a marathon, when I've done 22-mile training runs?
Did you do your training runs with crowds yelling at you and competitors around you unconsciously prompting you to run faster? Thought not. Whether you're a 2:30 or a 5:30 marathoner, your race-day pace tends to be at least a smidge—and possibly lots—faster than training days. That's the difference, says Dr. Bright, between being pleasantly and painfully sore. "You accumulate lactic acid in your muscles by pushing the pace, which brings on premature fatigue," says Dr. Bright. "Plus, the extra mileage—very few people do a 26-mile training run—causes more micro tears in your muscles, and it's likely your muscles haven't totally healed from your training. Race day, they get even more beat up." The combination nets marathonitis, an acute condition that demands stairs be taken backward and the size of a stride be cut in half.

为什么我在训练时跑过22英里而跑完马拉松之后还是到处酸痛?
您在训练时有对您喊加油的群众和四周的竞争者使您无意识地越跑越快吗?没有吧。无论您是2:30还是5:30马拉松人,您比赛当天的配速至少略微—可能大幅度---快于训练的日子。在舒服的和痛苦的酸痛之间,Bright博士说,这就是差别。“提高配速使您的肌肉内乳酸积聚,导致提前疲劳,”Bright博士说。“另外,额外的里程---很少有人在训练时跑26.2英里---使您肌肉内的微小损伤增加,也有可能您的肌肉还没有从训练中完全恢复。比赛当天,它们甚至受到更大的伤害。”所有这一切钩织了马拉松后遗症,当情况严重时,甚至需要上下楼梯倒着走,一步分成二步。

Running Rx A huge fan of ice baths, Dr. Bright recommends the anti-inflammatory plunge, postrace, for at least five to 10 minutes. Don't bother taking NSAIDs like ibuprofen. "The newer studies show they really don't do that much for inflammation," says Dr. Bright. "And they can potentially put your kidneys at risk."

跑步对策 作为冰浴爱好者,Bright博士建议,赛后消炎冰浴至少需要5-10分钟。别为服用NSAIDs药物而烦恼,比如,布洛芬。“最新研究表明,这类药物的消炎效果没有那么好,”Bright博士说。“它们还有可能损害您的肾脏。”


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发表于 2010-10-20 14:07:02 | 显示全部楼层
又有新问题了。前三个没有。问题12想到是因为强度的不同。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-10-20 14:32:11 | 显示全部楼层
回复 4# hdbg007


    这位同学,好用功啊。赞一个!
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发表于 2010-10-20 15:35:03 | 显示全部楼层
老外的研究还挺有意思,有点穿越,一下子回到了远古时代
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